New year, new challenges and successes with Apple Configurator

A new year begins and the order for more iPads arrives on our doorstep. All the preparation last year setting up profiles, selecting and purchasing apps, backing up optimal setups to use as base models to set up batches of iPads are now to be put to the test. 100 iPads and 14 USB ports – how will it pan out?

Plugged first 14 in, everything fine except one iPad wouldn’t start up.

It appears that Configurator doesn’t deal with recovery mode so I had to shut down Configurator once the other iPads had finished syncing ( about 45 minutes – included iOS update, installing new apps, installing from a shared back up configuration and installing the student profiles discussed in my previous post on Configurator. You can’t have iTunes and Configurator open and operating at the same time.

The rogue iPad had to be connected to iTunes to restore. That took about 30 minutes then I reconnected to Configurator to run the update again. Interestingly, even though I assumed the restore added the latest iOS to the iPad, Configurator went through the updating of iOS 6 again. What I noticed later was that I had started straight in Supervise mode rather than Prepare.

The most annoying thing this week was that in every set of our older iPads from last year ( which incidentally I had configured last year without a hitch) there was one iPad that needed restoring. Whether that was an issue with the iPad, Configurator or a dodgy USB hub, I don’t know, but it wasted a good three hours, all because Configurator doesn’t restore iPads in Recovery mode.

Having said that, the 65 NEW iPads I set up this week were prepared, supervised and assigned by Configurator with very few hiccups. Most of the issues were self inflicted, with just a couple of annoying glitches that I defeated in the end.

Last year I created a junior Grade backup and a Middle/Senior Grade backup. This backup saved settings for the FileBrowser app, Safari bookmarks and the folder structures containing the apps. I also set up a profile ( in the Settings tab of the Prepare section of Configurator)  that included settings for the wifi, mail, restrictions and  zScaler proxy settings.


In Prepare or Supervise mode ( for new iPads, you have to Prepare first), under Settings you select the restore to Backup option and select the specific back up you want to use ( you can also select don’t restore if you don’t want to make any changes). There is also the option to update to the latest version of iOS ( or the option not to update). Make sure you have selected the desired Profiles if you have more than one.

Then switch to Apps and select the apps you want installed on the set of iPads you are preparing. Make sure you have enough copies of Paid apps added to Configurator to cover the full set of iPads you have connected or preparing or you will get errors. Also, if you have paid apps selected that haven’t been paid for that will cause errors as well. You need to be around when Configurator is adding Paid apps because it will want to log in to your VPP account and you need to insert the password to complete the action. Because I was adding different sets of apps to each Grade level’s iPads, I had to keep checking which apps were checked. If you make a mistake, you can always uncheck paid apps and reapply the preparation, returning the VPP codes to Configurator to be used later.

Once I had the settings and apps in place, I just had to hit Prepare and leave Configurator to set up the 14 iPads I had connected at once. ( I could have got a bigger hub but since I was setting up 14 iPads per Grade Level, the two 7 USB hubs I had were sufficient.) With about 50 apps added to the iPads, it took about 45-50 minutes to update to iOS 6.1, install free and paid apps, restore to the backup and configure profiles on the 14 iPads at once. This save A LOT of time compared to last year’s setup using iTunes.

Once the Prepare sequence was completed, I just switched to Supervise, checked the settings and Apps were still intact, hit Apply and the supervising phase started and finished in just a few minutes. You could stop here if you like but I chose to Assign the iPads to specific users in specific grade groups. As I explained in my previous post, because Configurator tethered the iPads to my Mac, resulting in the inability to download photos and movies to other computers  (which we overcome using wifi based FileBrowser solution) I assign the iPads to users so they can sync to Configurator and save files from apps that have a send   to iTunes option.

This should be simple. Once you have created groups and users, you select the group/users and click Check Out. You get a list of Users aligned to a set of iPads. You can select all iPads or USB connected Ipads to just see the ones you have connected. Click on Check out and it links user to iPad.

It was here I discovered a glitch that was partly caused by my workflow and partly by a flaw in the program.

I had already labelled my iPads and recorded the serial numbers in my spreadsheet before preparing in Configurator. As you can see in the annotated image above, there is an option to number the iPads sequentially. This saves a lot of time naming the iPads if preparing a lot for classrooms. What I didn’t realise is that the order I plugged them in didn’t match the sequencing of the iPad numbering so I ended up with a mismatch between the labels and the names in the iPad General Settings. I had to manually rename them  as a result, defeating the purpose. They also didn’t match up in the Assign mode and I had to drag and drop them to match USER/IPAD numbers. I eventually worked out that if I plugged the iPads into the USB hub in REVERSE order, the sequential numbering worked.

Example image – not from my setup

One final little set up I did was making a generic Lock Screen that identified the iPad to the school and the user. Annoyingly difficult to find since it is not part of the Prepare/Supervise/Assign screens, you have to go to Preferences in the File menu, drag and drop an image and select the option to include user/iPad number. If you don’t assign iPads to users, the Device Number appears on the screen. If you Assign Users, the User name appears instead.

While there were a couple of little issues this time around, each time I use Configurator, I improve my understanding of the workflow I need to use. It is infinitely better than iTunes as an option and I was happy with the speed of the setup of the iPad sets. I probably took almost as much time unpacking, cleaning up, labelling, setting up in trays and plugging in as it took to prepare each set. For a free app, I’m happy to keep using it. Future changes and updates won’t take long at all and I think I have finally got it under control.

Is it the iPad, the apps or the user?

Technology has been trying to ‘revolutionize’ education for a long time now. The mistake we’ve been making all along is placing all of the focus on the least important component of the revolution – the tech itself. It’s where all the money goes and then what? Nothing left to actually ensure it’s going to make the difference we want, with the the people we want to impact – the teacher and the student. It’s happened all throughout education tech history in recent times. The film projector, the photocopier, the typewriter, the desktop and laptop computer, data projectors, interactive whiteboards, digital cameras were all heavily invested in ( and many still are today ) to bring engagement and improved teaching and learning to the educational world….But talk of the revolution is still going on.

And now we have the tablet. The iPad has begun a new “education revolution” and now the obligatory opposition tech companies have joined the battle. The question has to be asked – are we again starting from the wrong end of the battle lines? Is the iPad (inserted alternative tablet if so desired) the real catalyst or is there so much more to this than money spending school systems can see beyond the new and shiny?

It’s why I ask the question: Is it the iPad, the App or the User?

The iPad

What is it about the iPad that has enamoured so many in the Education World? Spare me the trollish jibes about Apple’s Reality Distortion Field and slavish fanboys. Educators aren’t that shallow. There is something about this tablet, originally aimed squarely at the consumer, that lends itself beautifully to educational pursuits. The desktop computer, for all its power and potential, leaves the learner anchored to a desk and reliant on other tech tools to increase its functionality. The laptop improved on this with its portability but it still lacked flexibility and true mobility as well as clunky touchpads that lacked precision.

Then came the tablet. Yes, Microsoft predated Apple with a tablet but the iPad brought its use into the mainstream. In a school setting, it brings big changes to the learning experience. It takes mobile learning to a level far beyond the laptop. Its tactile interface brings the learner in direct contact with the screen with positives and negatives. The touch screen allows for direct drawing, handwriting and screen navigation beyond the capabilities of a mouse of trackpad. The built in A/V capabilities, in particular the front and back facing cameras for photo and video, adds one stop access to multimedia use that adds engagement and creativity that other computers can’t match. Its ‘always on, instant save’ nature means instant interaction, replacing the wait time that can slow down learning in class. And its unique lack of filing system, while a fault for many computing traditionalists, makes accessing work for younger children in particular far easier than combinations of menus, commands and hierarchical folders. The touch interface makes it a familiar experience and easier for children to pick up experiment and learn to use ( although this is not always the case for adults with computer behaviour engrained in their physical memory.)

That in itself, though, falls far short of what is necessary for an “Education Revolution”. Beyond a web browser with its well documented Flash deficiencies ( whether we like it or not, educational web 2.0 tools are dominated by Flash ), basic A/V viewing and editing tools, an e-book/PDF reader, a text messaging system, a VERY basic text editor in Notes and some time management tools, what you get out of the box has serious limitations. So obviously, to get closer to revolutionizing education, we need to tap into the vast system of the App Store.

The Apps
“There’s an App for that!” has become part of the English conversation. While early on, we were inundated with countless games, social apps and a mind boggling selection of skills and drill apps of dubious value, it wasn’t long before every possible educational opportunity could be addressed by an app. For years, many schools have been hamstrung by expensive software packages tied into bulk user licences that added up to hundreds sometimes thousands of dollars, preventing us from going beyond the internet and the obligatory Microsoft Office package. True, there are a great number of Web 2.0 tools that have brought creativity and collaboration to the classroom, but while some are free, many expect yearly licences from schools to use them.

As I have written in my post “Essential Paid iPad Apps”, for a reasonable cost (obviously some will disagree),especially under the half price VPP system, the limitations of the ‘out of the box’ iPad transforms into an all purpose teaching and learning machine. Suddenly students have access to video editing, animation creation, ebook publishing, comic book production, digital storytelling in many forms, annotation tools, note taking, audio recording, collaboration tools, painting and drawing apps, content curation and news feeds all at the touch of an icon. In a 1:1 environment, the user has all of this stored within the apps he uses, making for efficient use of time and a non-reliance on accessing messy network folder hierarchies.

But………and it’s a BIG BUT…..

All the tech tools in the world mean nothing if they are not used effectively. Too often over the last 2 years, I have seen way too many examples of half finished, poorly edited creations in the name of “experimenting with the apps”. That, however, is as far as it goes. The lesson is about the app, not the content or the skills that needed to be developed to make a real difference. This is why the role of the User becomes Number One Priority.

The User

No amount of tech or any other educational innovation can make a difference if the users aren’t prepared to take advantage of the opportunity. The so called “digital natives” in our classrooms may have grown up using technology but it doesn’t mean they know how to use it to its full potential. Teachers have a great opportunity to revolutionise education with what has become available but just because their cupboard is full of iPads (or laptops, digital cameras etc, etc) it doesn’t mean the revolution will happen.

Politicians need PD. Leaders of Education need PD. Teachers need PD. Parents need….whatever we call PD for parents. Students need to learn what  is possible with what they know.

          • Facebook/Twitter/Social media in general isn’t just for organising parties, telling us where in the city you are having dinner or writing funny responses about awkward situations. If that is all educators, students and the community think its for, they won’t use it to collaborate, to share, to investigate, to innovate.
          • If teachers aren’t shown how iPads or any other tech tool can improve their current practices and given time and support to gain confidence in their use and possibilities, they will continue with whole class instruction, worksheets and textbooks and every other practice that worked for them in the past.
          • If we only focus on the tool and not the purpose for using it, then we will still get substandard essays and projects – they’ll just look better.
          • If we spend all of our time talking about increased engagement in class because of iPads, but don’t evaluate the improvement in learning, nothing has been accomplished. After all, a 15 year old can be engaged in an all night movie or video game party. Doesn’t mean they’ll learn anything.

I said at the start that Educators aren’t shallow. We can, though, still get caught up in the latest craze, whether it’s the latest buzzword or the next great tech tool. This Education Revolution has been talked about for a long time. We need to focus on the teaching and learning, the teachers and the learners before we focus on the tools. Instead of investigating and experimenting with tablets and apps, let’s make sure we  investigate and experiment with the pedagogy that’s need to make the difference. Let’s put the user first.

What’s your experience in your schools? Are you planning for change or just having tech thrown at you with the hope that something will stick? Join the conversation.

Book Creator for iPad – updated again for greater e-book functionality (tutorial)

A lot of iPad users in schools have already heard of Book Creator for iPad. I’ve written about it before on my blog before. Nevertheless, I have put together a how to guide in different formats (ebook, PDF and video) to showcase its features and highlight its new features just added in a recent update that how to guides online don’t feature at the moment. ( the how to guide included in the app is still the original guide that doesn’t include half the current features). It’s one of my must have apps for my school and the tutorials are to support my staff and students, most who still haven’t used the app yet,  in learning how to use the app. While others reading this may have checked the app out before, these tutorials may still be of use for you

Book Creator for iPad Tutorial by mcglee1966




Download iBook version of my  Book Creator for iPad tutorial (created using Book Creator )to read on your iPad here.




Here is the video tutorial I made and uploaded to YouTube. It is in 2 parts because it runs for about 28 minutes in total and YouTube won’t let me upload videos that big!


Edmodo just got a lot better on the iPad


One of the justifiable criticisms of the iPad was that it was difficult to impossible to transfer files between many apps or networks. With the addition of some apps like PocketCloud and FileBrowser, and the improvement of the Open in… function in later systems , especially iOS 6, this has become even less of an issue. Still, in terms of downloading files on web based apps, you were often limited to photos from the camera roll. This was the case with the Edmodo app.

An Edmodo app update earlier in the year allowed access to the Camera Roll and Google Docs. This however, was still too limiting to use the Library/Backpack feature of Edmodo to upload, store and download most files.

Today that changed. The latest Edmodo iPad app now adds File Sharing functionality, both uploading and downloading to Edmodo’ s Library (for teachers) and Backpack (students).

To upload files to Edmodo on an iPad, simply use the Open in.. Function, which now includes an Open in Edmodo option. This opens your file, whether an email, a document from Pages or any other word processing app on iPad, or from a file sharing app like Dropbox or FileBrowser, straight into Edmodo and saves it.


To download a file from Edmodo, you select it from the library/backpack, select the file icon, which opens the Open in… Window and choose the app you want to open the file. Once you have worked on the file, you can then upload it back to the library as described earlier. Once a file is in the Library/backpack file system, you can add it to an Assignment or discussion stream.


For schools that are 1:1 iPad schools who also use Edmodo, this is a big improvement that will make it easier to become more independent of laptops and desktops.

Oh Apple Configurator, I will not be defeated!!

NOTE: In case you are unaware, Configurator is a Mac Only application. If you run your management of iPads with a PC, ignore this. ( or buy one Mac for your school. That’s what I did – we are PC only despite my Apple bias on this blog.)

As I’ve said many times this year on this blog, I’m more of a pedagogical user of software rather than a technician but being the resident Apple man, I was given responsibility for the iPad program at our school. I set up the trial iPads this year using iTunes under one shared account while we went about trialling the wonder tablet in our classrooms. At that stage, the Volume Purchasing Program was not available in Australia and Apple Configurator wasn’t available. Now that both are and we are on our way to purchasing a large new batch of iPads to add to our current sets, I have finally bitten the bullet and rushed headlong into being a Technician in charge of iPads.

I was disappointed in the lack of clarity in the Configurator manual and online help from Apple and I did a lot of fruitless searching for answers to my initial questions about Configurator. In the end, I decided to trust my level of understanding of Apple software along with my propensity to experiment and persist and just go ahead and try it out.

Initially, I was very happy with the basic idea behind Configurator and found it very simple to use until a major flaw, that unfortunately I’ve have decided to accept (more on that later) showed its ridiculous self.

For those who have not seen Configurator yet, it is set up to perform three functions:

  1. Prepare;
  2. Supervise, and;
  3. Assign.
The Prepare function was very simple to work out. You simply plug in the iPad/ iPads ( to start with I just plugged in a single iPad but eventually I did 7 at once; apparently 30 can be done if you have a big enough hub) and then create the settings and select the apps you want installed. Options for restoring from a specific backup or updating or ignoring the IOS to install on the selected iPad. You also can decided to automatically name the ipads sequentially by number if setting up a large number from scratch. I chose not to do this as I was reformatting iPads already allocated numbers in our records. The main setting to adjust is the profile.

To create a profile for a set of iPads ( you can create as many as you want – I’ll be creating a separate profile for the leadership team’s devices), you simply click on the + icon at the bottom of the window. This brings up the window shown below.

There are many settings you can manage. These include:

Passcode:( I chose not to set a passcode – setting this up for shared devices seems pointless, although it makes sense if setting up single use devices)

Restrictions: this involves allowing/disallowing camera/Facetime, Screen capture, Photo stream, iMessage, Siri, the Bookstore, App deleting and installing, and iCloud as well as restricting apps and media content

Wi-Fi/Global HTTP Proxy : set the type of network, password, network ID and proxy server. An improvement on iTunes, which although it saved settings through a backup restore, still needed the password to be entered individually on each iPad.

Mail Settings: this allows you to set up a mail account with all required settings, similar to the iPad set up but applied to all iPads seamlessly.

Certificates: Our system now uses zScaler cloud based filtering and web monitoring and this was installed by simply importing the downloaded certificate in this setting. A Configurator certificate is also installed by default when in supervised mode. While this seemed simple in theory, in practice, I had several problems with the certificate being verified after installation. I had to refresh iPads several times for this to take effect – Annoying glitch you need to look out for.

Two options that were more work than they should have been were the Calendar and Contacts. They require access to Calendar and Contact servers  instead of just syncing with the Calendar and Contact apps on the Mac. While I didn’t need to set up a calendar on a student iPad, I did want to add teacher email addresses to the Contacts app so they could email work to teachers if necessary. To work around this, I needed to save a vCard with all of the addresses and email it to the iPad’s email account. Then I could install the addresses on the iPad. I only had to so this on one iPad, save it as the new backup and then restore all the remaining iPads from that backup. Workable and unnecessarily time consuming when the Configurator app could have just accessed the Address Book directly.

Web clips can also be installed if you want to add links to school websites or other sites. At this stage, I haven’t tried that option but may in the future.

Other options like VPN, Exchange and other Enterprise level settings are there but probably not needed in most educational settings. I’ve read on some sites that some have a preferences for making multiple profiles for different settings so you can just select/deselect options if you want to make changes but I prefer to have all settings in a single profile.

Once the profile was set, it was on to the Apps. Again just click the + icon and you will be taken to your iTunes library and the Mobile Applications folder. Simply select the apps you want to install, and they will be imported into Configurator’s Apps panel. If an app is free, it will be labelled as free and can be installed on as many iPads as you want. If it is a paid app, a grey rounded button appears next to its name with a 0 in it. This is to signify it can’t be installed until you have purchased codes from the VPP ( Volume Purchasing Program ). Once you do purchase codes, you simply click on the grey button, locate and import the spreadsheet of codes and the number of codes show up on the button. Simple to use and understand.

Then it is just a matter of selecting the apps you want to install and clicking Prepare. The program then installs the most up to date iOS, all of the settings and apps while you go get a coffee. The time it takes depends on whether you already have the latest iOS on the iPad or not. Today, when I set up 14 iPads in two sessions ( I only have a 7 port hub) it took about 50 minutes to complete 7 iPads but they already had iOS 6.01 on them.

After I set up the initial iPad, I backed it up so that I could restore all the folder settings, addresses, Dropbox and FileBrowser settings to all the other iPads. This is an important step if you want all of the iPads to be identical. Once a backup is saved, you switch the restore option to that specific backup and all the other ipads will be restored to that setup.

Once prepared, you are ready to use the Supervised Panel. This is where you can make changes throughout the year to individual or groups of iPads simultaneously. You can remove or add apps, change profile settings, update iOS, make new back ups or change the name of the apps. The main benefit of the Supervise function is that when you remove paid apps from supervised iPads, the code is transferred back to the system and can then be used again on another iPad. This is a great function to have if you want to save money by only buying VPP codes for some of your iPads and switching them from one set to another.

The final function is Assign. I had no plans to use this function until I discovered the one MAJOR FLAW in supervising iPads. Once the iPad is under supervision by Configurator, it can no longer be connected to another computer in order to download photos or movies from the Camera Roll. This is a feature that is certainly NEEDED in a SCHOOL where one of the MAJOR FUNCTIONS is using the creative power of multimedia apps that can be saved as images or movies. What was Apple thinking here?

When I discovered this, I was going to give up on the SUPERVISED option and go UNSUPERVISED. However, this caused a lot of heartache. The profiles wouldn’t work, once an app was added, the code couldn’t be transferred, and worst of all, once the iPad was set up, you couldn’t add or delete apps through Configurator. So I had to make the compromise and decided we would have to rely on wi-fi transfer of photos ( easy ) and movies ( slow but possible) using our FileBrowser set up. Hopefully, though, Apple will change this flaw if it is serious about school use.

Anyway, back to Assign. With Assign, you can create users and assign them to groups and iPads. This meant you could check out the iPad to a user and when it was checked back in through Configurator, you could download work from any app that has iTunes Sharing as an option. Not ideal with potentially 100 different students wanting to access files on ONE computer but a last resort. Having said that, while I haven’t set them up yet, Assign is a nice way to sort the iPads into groups for each grade level, which will happen next year with more iPads being available.

One of the main reasons I wanted to use Configurator was to find a simple way of managing the iPads. Using iTunes meant a lot of work arounds to get the iPads set up this year. When I eventually leave one day, I want something that a novice can take over without too much hassle. iTunes wasn’t going to allow that to happen with 100 iPads. Despite its glitches and that ONE MAJOR FLAW, Configurator is an easy to use ( once I worked it out) program that I can explain to someone else.

I also have one gripe with the VPP. You only get the codes, not the app. You have to download the app from iTunes using one of the codes, then add it to Configurator and uninstall it to retrieve the used code back ( so I have read, anyway)Not good, Apple. Set up the VPP as a download store as well please.Fortunately, I had copies of all the apps already so I didn’t have to go through the hassle but for others it would be a pain.

I know there are other management programs out there and its Mac Only  but with Configurator being free, it seemed the best option at the time. I wish it would work wirelessly  ( apparently it can with Lion Server, which I don’t have) but overall, I think it is a serviceable program for what we will probably maintain in the near future. If anyone has any questions or  other tips or alternatives I’d love to hear them.

3 iPad apps for volume and surface area investigations


This week, Grade 5 began a unit on Volume, Capacity and Surface Area. On a weekly basis, I take combined groups from the 4 grades consisting of the higher achievers, while the classroom teachers concentrate on the mainstream group and students needing more individual instruction to achieve success. I made a conscious decision this week to focus on using iPads with my group to explore both volume/capacity as well as surface area.

I chose 3 apps to assist me in this learning experience – Think 3D ( free version) and Skitch, which are both free apps and Numbers ($9.99- $4.50 through the Volume Purchasing Program if 20 or more bought). Note: you could substitute the currently free CloudOn app, which is basically a server based Office app, or Google Spreadsheets, a free component of Google Docs/Google Apps for Education.

In the past I would have run this lesson using a limited number of connecting blocks and would have asked the students to record their observations in their exercise books. In using the iPads and the selected apps, I wanted to trial how this type of investigation could be enhanced and improved upon by using technology rather than traditional tools.


The lesson began with the following premise. Each pair of students ( didn’t have enough iPads for 1:1; would probably work in pairs regardless to encourage collaboration and discussion) was to create a cuboid or rectangular prism with a volume of 72 cubes using Think 3D. In the past, students would have used a limited supply of blocks and would only have had enough to make one model. Using the iPad app, they were able to explore multiple ways of making a 72 cube prism with a limitless supply of cubes with a simple touch of the screen adding or deleting  a cube to the prism each time.

Another advantage is that, while there are many benefits in physically seeing and touching a real 3D object rather than a 2D representation of one on a screen, the ability to rotate the prisms on the iPad to view the different surfaces with a simple swipe made for easy investigation and no chance of the object falling apart and needing to rebuild, thus saving time for more analysis.

Using Reflection on my Macbook ( also available for PCs), the children were able to mirror their iPad screens on our interactive whiteboard and share all of the possible prisms and cuboids. This allowed for easy comparison and discussion without having to move our models around as we would have in the past.

The next step was to save the models as images in the Photo library on the iPad so that we could import them into Skitch, (an annotation app linked to Evernote.) As you can see from the image below, the students were able to clearly label the dimensions of their prisms and record surface area measurements as well. The use of this app enables easy collection of data for assessment rather than the rather difficult alternative of taking photos with a camera and writing notes about each photo. It also makes it easy for the children themselves to keep records of their work and thinking, an improvement on the lesson for both teacher and student. They were also able to swipe back to Think 3D to manipulate the prism to investigate the dimensions closely during the annotation stage.


We then opened up Numbers to systematically record and calculate the measurements using spreadsheet formulas. Being capable students, they already knew how to use the L X W for area and L X W X H for volume formulas. I wanted to skill them up in using spreadsheet formulas to make quick calculations so that more time could be used for analysing the measurement data and the 3D models.

The spreadsheet was laid out so all possible dimension combinations discovered by the students were recorded. We then inputted a volume formula to verify each prism had a volume of 72 cubes. We then used formulas of our own creation to calculate the surface area of each prism. Once one formula was created, we were able to copy and paste that formula for each prism to calculate each prism’s surface area. Once we had all of the volumes and surface areas, combined with the 3D models, students were then able to make informed conjectures, observations and proofs about why certain prisms of the  same volume had varying surface areas.

While I am not saying I haven’t taught this lesson successfully in the past, using these apps and the iPad allowed for more direct and focused engagement from all students. Previously, the recording of data would have been a whole class event, which I always feel has the potential for disengagement as children watch others do the work. Having limited resources in terms of blocks, early problem solvers are left waiting for others. With the use of Think 3D, they were able to continue on with their own investigations rather than waiting for another pair to make an alternative model.

With today’s lesson, the children were actively involved in all aspects. They had opportunities to explore as many options as they had time for, they inputted all mesurement data, they annotated all of their images, which enabled them to consolidate and record their thinking more efficiently. The technology used also enabled them to save a permanent record of all the work they did today, whereas in the past, it was lost once the cubes were packed up. I  think this is a good example of how technology, and the iPad in particular, can be used for greater engagement and deeper thinking in Mathematics. Yes, all of the steps in the lessons could have been done without tech or iPad specifically, but I don’t think it is as effective.

The iPad competition: sell us the educational advantage, not the tech specs


During the week, I attended an ICT Network meeting. A Lenovo sales rep attended the middle session to spruik their latest products, including a laptop/tablet hybrid, which we could at least see and their latest Windows 8 based tablet, which we couldn’t because it has not been released yet. Later in the day, one of our network leaders spend some time showing us the new Windows 8 on his laptop and his Samsung Galaxy (whatever the small one is called).

As I sat there respectfully paying attention, I spent most of my time thinking why do proponents of iPad alternatives spend so much time selling the technical specs that outmatch the iPad and so little time telling us how their preferred product will improve the way our students will learn compared to the iPad.

I’m not trying to be cute here – the iPad is not a perfect product by any stretch of the imagination.( I’d really like a file system structure built in. And a a way better management system for deployment school wide) Despite the Apple themed header of this blog and the heavy emphasis on the ipad, I’m neither an Apple Evangelist nor a “refuse to use Windows” fanboy. My point is this. The iPad clearly got a substantial jump on its rivals and have a major presence in a lot of schools. By now many schools have been using the apps that have to varying degrees changed teaching practices, improved engagement and provided new ways of demonstrating learning. They would have worked out how to get content to and from the iPad without USB connections for data sticks or cards. Many schools would have made substantial investments in iPads and apps. Inboxes are crammed, Scoopits are inundated and Twitter feeds are awash with countless articles on the success stories of iPads in schools (as well as the problems, to be balanced).

In this environment, the iPad opposition has to do something more to sell themselves. What is it they’re selling to schools?

The half laptop/half tablet mutant – if you want something to work like a laptop, get the laptop! We have iPads and laptops. We know the difference. We use them for different purposes. Sticking them together and carrying around both at the same time just seems pointless to me.

Tablets with real keyboards – I know there are plenty of iPads being attached to keyboards. I get it ( but don’t see the point personally). But it’s not Apple’s selling point, it others. The opposition, though, make it one of their main selling points. Again, tech specs. Again, if you want a physical keyboard, get a laptop.

Windows 8 – not going to turn this into a Apple/Microsoft thing. I’m only talking about tablets. I regularly use Splashtop to access my Macs on my iPad. It works for a quick connection to do a few tasks on my Mac from another room but using a full computer desktop system on a tablet is not a great experience. I also occasionally use CloudOn, the online version of Microsoft Office. Again, it works and all the features are there but I can’t last five minutes using all those tiny icons and menu items on my iPad using my finger. The touch interface is a pain with a menu based scrolling window system. I know Windows 8 has the whole tile based touch interface. On a Windows tablet, that makes sense and will make it as user friendly as an Android or iPad. But I keep hearing about how it’s going to allow for a full Windows experience. The demo I saw this week was about how you can switch the tile based interface over to a “more Windows 7” look. So again I ask, if you want the Windows look so much, just stick with a laptop/net book.

Tech Specs – Android vendors have been using this for years with their phones and more recently their tablets and for many it has worked. But a USB port isn’t going to transform learning. An SD card slot isn’t going to engage an 8 year old. Near field communication chips wasn’t on the mind of this primary school kid who made this Solar System video using Explain Everything and iMovie on his iPad. Tech specs may excite the technicians and techie teachers at school but the students just want a tool they are familiar with and use to help them learn. I’m not saying Android and Windows tablets won’t do that. I’m saying no one is selling how they can. They’re just selling the physical features. Physical specs of computers and tablets don’t help us learn. Usability, accessibility, portability and useful software do.

Apps – other than portability, the ease of touch for young students and the integrated audio visual tools of tablets, for me it’s all about the apps. Apple makes the iPad, but dedicated developers make the apps that make it worth having. We’ve used them, advertised them, rated them and there’s a truckload of them ( a lot not worth having of course.) Android has plenty of them too, many of them the same. It might be that I’m not looking, but it just doesn’t seem to be as important to Android vendors to push the apps for education as it does the tech specs. I would actually like to see a Galaxy in action being used for classroom purposes so I could make a comparison. If any readers can direct me to good examples I’m happy to take a look. Same for Microsoft’s Surface. Of course that will take a while because there are next to no apps at the moment – they’re at the iPhone 1 stage of development. Yes, you can use Office, I assume. But we’ve been using that for 20 years in school. Has it really made a difference? If you are going to sell me an alternative to the iPad, give me something groundbreaking in EDUCATION, not something I’ve been using for two decades on a different screen.

Microsoft cornered the market in PCs years ago and won’t get passed. They have business covered. Android will continue to win the numbers game ( but not profit ) in mobile phones. iPods crushed all opposition in the music player market. That’s all irrelevant though here. Ultimately, despite its substantial advantage at present, Apple may get surpassed in the consumer tablet market by Android or, who knows, even Windows 8 tablets in the future. In schools, though, I hope it’s because of a compelling educational argument. We’ve already spent the last 20 years filling up schools with labs of computers that were never fully utilized. I hope we don’t end up with schools full of tablets bought because of tech specs and technician preferences. Hey, I don’t want schools full of iPads that aren’t being used effectively either. All I’m asking is that companies and tech leaders pushing for iPad alternatives start selling the educational benefits of their products not just the price or physical features. We want products that will help us learn. Apple hasn’t got that 100% right either. Lets make sure these things improve education. That’s the bottom line.

Pain and Remedies of Sharing iPads in Schools

NASA Visualization Explorer (iPad app)

There is no end to the uses of the iPad in education. I’ve discussed that ad nauseum on this blog. As a learning tool, it has the potential to make a great positive change to learning. The only problem is Apple designed it for individual use. Schools are designed for ( or budgeted for) shared use. Conventional wisdom is for iPad use to occur in a 1:1 or BYOD Environment. In the best case scenario,  I wholeheartedly agree. Unfortunately, financial realities will often dictate that sharing is the only viable option if we want our students to enjoy the benefits of the iPad. It can be done effectively – I’ve shared my thoughts early in the year about the pros and cons of shared iPads – but doesn’t happen without some time consuming workarounds. What follows is my take on the pains (and remedies) of sharing iPads in a rather large Primary (elementary) school.

If you have your own iPad, privacy, safety and security boils down to deciding to use a passcode to lock your iPad screen and, if required, being connected to your school’s network filtering system. In a shared iPad environment there is a truckload more of procedures, policies and effort involved.

In our situation, the iPads are mainly for the students but I have assigned each of the iPads to a teacher for overnight borrowing. This allows them the opportunity to explore the preinstalled apps and experiment with how they can use the iPad in their classes. With the iPads being shared with students from Prep to Grade 6,though, we need to be careful with what teachers leave accessible on the tablet. Because of this, we had to adopt a borrowing agreement for teachers to sign. It covered accountability for damage, stipulations that all work done on the iPad be removed, limits on sites visited on the browsers, and most importantly, returning it the next day so the students can access them. The restrictions have limited the borrowing by teachers during the year, especially the need to clear them of all work. Getting teachers onto options like Dropbox, which is accessible through most of the apps we use would alleviate the pain, especially now that it is finally working at school, but that’s another PD program in itself.

Our school has had issues with using a proxy server with iPads since we’ve had them. With multiple users trying to log on to the internet using their own secure username and password, we had issues with Safari staying connected to accounts and  apps randomly trying to connect to the internet via repeating login screens. We have recently switched over to ZSCALER which not only has solved the proxy conflict with most apps, most notably Dropbox and Evernote, but has also made accessing the internet with multiple users more secure. Each time a user has log on since ZSCALER, there has been no issue with Safari staying connected to a particular user’s account.

However, a new issue has arisen, albeit with a solution already worked out. ZSCALER works with an initial log on via a designated username and password per computer. This works well on computers that allow for individual user accounts. The problem with the iPad is that there is a single user set up , not logins. This means that whoever logs in to ZSCALER on the iPad first stays connected to their ZSCALER permissions. Even though each additional user can log onto their personal internet account, their access is dictated by the permissions of the first user. This is fraught with danger if the first user is a teacher with full access and then a Prep student gets it and no sites are blocked!!

The intial workaround is to go into Safari settings and clear the History and Cookies. This resets ZSCALER and allows for a new login. The problem with this solution is that we don’t want the students messing around with settings. What we’ve decided to do is create a single student user account that contains all the permissions appropriate for students and login into all the iPads with that as a one off. Then they can be left alone. Teachers will have to live with the restrictions.

One successful remedy we have working consistently well is accessing the school network. Using the iPad app FileBrowser, which I outline in this post, everyone can log on to the network and access their files, which can be opened on the iPad if a compatible app exists. With most apps accessing FileBrowser through the Open in… function, users can also save their work back to the school network. The added bonus of FileBrowser is that it can access the iPad camera roll so any image or movie saved by apps there can be copied to the network through the app. The only issue is making sure everyone logs out of the network when they finish using Filebrowser ( this involves a simple click on an electric plug icon). This is one success story with sharing iPads without any lasting issues.

The most obvious problem with sharing iPads, and yes I know it has been discussed at length on countless iPad flavoured blogs, is the lack of file system and autosave/store within app functionality of the iPad. It’s great for its original purpose of easy access for the intended individual use scenario. For shared environments, it creates a mountain of files stored by potentially hundreds of users. Will other users delete/ overwrite or edit the file? Will we run out of storage space because of the number of photos, movies, animations, comic strips, documents, drawings, ebooks etc floating around all those apps waiting to be completed?

Again, all of this can be dealt with through a number of file sharing or transferring methods. I’ve already mentioned the successful use of FileBrowser. Dropbox or Google Drive access is another good option, emailing files is often used by those less adept at using newer methods. The biggest issue is consistent adoption of these methods. Often students and teachers save their work to one of the above options but still leave the original copy on the iPad. This leads to a build up of files that no one is certain are safe to be deleted. It will take time for everyone at school to get into the routine of transfer then delete, but it is a workable solution.

Funnily enough, for many at school, the biggest issue of sharing has nothing to do with the limitations of the technical side of the iPad. It’s simply the access to them. At present, they are stored centrally in one place in a set of carry trays. For some, and it is a reasonable complaint, it is difficult to carry them across the expanses of our rather large property to their class rooms, especially the juniors who can’t rely on the little ones to help carry them. On top of that, some still find it a technical chore to use the online borrowing system I have devised. And of course, 35 iPads for 760 students ‘aint’ exactly 1:1!

Having brought up all these issues, though, doesn’t downplay the successful use of iPads that have taken place this year. Many videos, ebooks, slideshows, digital stories, audio recordings and comics would not have been made without their introduction. Junior grades without the widespread access to other technology enjoyed by the senior grades have been given greater opportunities with ICT as a result of the iPads. Engagement in learning has undoubtedly been enhanced. With plans for more, access will become less problematic. With our proxy server issues over, we can set up cloud options for transferring files and continue to improve in our use of FileBrowser and deleting files when finished with them. We will always be a shared iPad environment. We will make it work.

What stories do you have of your shared iPad experiences. Please leave a comment to let us know. Join the conversation.

The iPad – What it should and shouldn’t be for Education

This blog originally started as a reflection journal as I begun a pilot program for using iPads at my school. My early posts ( check January and February posts ) were discussions of the pros and cons of iPads. As the year has gone by and I have more time to research, read other iPad articles and experiment more with apps and with the students using them more frequently, I’ve had time to reflect on what iPads are offering schools. I’m not going to debate what model of iPad program to commit to – 1:1 or shared. I’m simply going to concentrate on what I think schools should consider before committing to iPads at all.

What you should use iPads for in schools

Multimedia content creation
I am so sick of the tech press misrepresenting the iPad purely as a content consumption device and complaining that it is not for content creation. I think they confuse content creation with publishing their articles with a traditional keyboard. On the contrary, the main reason schools should invest in iPads IS Content Creation. I’m not talking about Word or PowerPoint documents. That’s 20th century publishing that was meant for office workers and businessmen in the first place, not school kids.

What the iPad offers to children is the ability to capture, develop and publish their learning in the creative, engaging, multimedia way they experience the world. Traditional keyboard/writing based computing held back younger students and limited older ones. Now they can take pictures, record their voices (VoiceThread,GarageBand), create videos and slideshows(iMovie, SonicPics), annotate diagrams (Skitch), explain and record their learning in screencasts (Explain Everything, Doceri, Showme), use animated puppets to tell stories (Sock Puppets, Toontastic), create comic strips or whole comic books ( Comic Life, Strip Designer) combine text,freehand drawing and pictures in mind maps (Popplet, iMindmap) and publish interactive, multimedia books that others can read on their iPads (BookCreator,Creative Book Builder). All from the one device without having to connect any other tech up with wires and search for the files. The iPad is the ultimate one stop shop for student content creation that goes well beyond what they were capable of achieving easily just a couple of years ago. The beauty of all these apps is that they are multipurpose apps. They can be used in all curriculum areas and their uses are only limited by your or your student imagination. A Word Document could only do so much. Multimedia apps can allow for so much more scope for learning.

Portable, anywhere, interactive collaborative learning
The beauty of the iPad is its portability and use anywhere capability. Desktops anchor you to a desk and isolate you from a group. Laptops are still too cumbersome to carry around and the built in cameras and microphones are too restrictive. The iPad frees you up to use it anywhere any time. On a field trip/excursion? Take the iPad along with you and do all your work live and instantly. Take pictures and record a commentary for an instant report. Record footage of your physical activity in PE classes and play back for instant feedback on your performance, in slow motion with iMotion HD. Create a documentary on the spot with the video camera and iMovie. With wifi available, report live from an event with FaceTime or Skype. The physical makeup of the iPad makes for a more social sharing environment that isn’t as easy or effective in a lab of desktops or the one way screens of laptops. The tactile nature of the touchscreen brings students together and the multimedia capabilities can be shared by a group.

Social, interactive Reading the “digital literacy way”
One of the best activities on an iPad is reading, but not in the traditional sense. If you just want to read, get a book from the library – it’s cheaper. Reading on a iPad is a much richer experience and can enhance the educational experience in schools. Reading in iBooks allows you to highlight passages and record annotated notes which are then stored and organized in a dedicated bookmarked section and look up definitions without flicking through a dictionary. Using PDF annotation apps you can do limitless note taking without running out of space on the page.

While you can do the same on a traditional computing device, the use of social bookmarking tools and curation website bookmarklets make collaborative reading a far easier proposition, simply because of the book like experience sitting with an iPad gives you. Having students sitting in a group using Diigo’s shared annotation tools allows for both real conversation and tech based note sharing that can be referred to later. It also allows for collaboration with students outside the group which widens the community of learners you can work with. Individually, finding sites to share with others and then posting them on Scoop-it, Diigo, Edmodo, sharing via Twitter or other social media sites via bookmarklets, share buttons or through apps like Zite and Flipboard just seems more natural on a touchscreen tablet rather than on a mouse driven computer.


Check out my other posts on Writing, Maths and Literacy ( in the Categories section on the right) for my other uses for iPads – I don’t want to repeat myself too much. Suffice to say, the iPad has the potential to change the way we learn and teach if we take the time to research and investigate what others are doing. I have curated a wealth of resources for you to use on my Scoopit page linked at the top of my blog page as well as in my Diigo Bookmarks under the iPad tag also accessible above.

The iPad, however, is not perfect by any means and does have limitations to consider. There are some things it can’t do at all and many things that are best done on other devices. Read on for what they shouldn’t be used for in schools.

What you shouldn’t use iPads for in schools

This list is more about poor decision making about getting iPads rather than the iPad’s lack of ability to manage the task. It’s also more applicable to a school setting ( i use my iPad for a lot of things completely un-school related, which shouldn’t be a factor for getting them for school) and why you are choosing iPads over other computing options. If it can’t do the task as effectively as a “computer”, if it isn’t going to be an improvement and make a profound change to how you use tech in education, if it isn’t going to be any different to what you are already doing with desktop or laptop computers, then consider whether the iPad is really what you want.

Traditional word processing
Don’t get me wrong. I use my iPad for about 90% of the word processing I do. Most of this blog has been published using my iPad. Having said that, if you’re going to jump on the bandwagon and buy iPads and then complain about not having Microsoft Office on it, or that Pages messes up the formatting of the Word Document you just imported or you don’t like the touchscreen keyboard for typing, you haven’t thought about why you want iPads. If all your students do with tech at school is publish stories and reports in Word, then you will find your iPads being underutilized.

Replacing books just for reading or lightening the load in your students’ backpacks.
Personally, I read a lot on my iPad. But, as I outlined in the “What you should use iPads for in Schools” section of this post, I don’t just read with my iPad. Once again, it is a wasted opportunity for changing the way you foster learning in your school if your main reason for buying iPads is to replace books/textbooks with ebooks and PDF scans of textbooks. This does not enhance learning. This does not change the way you teach. Just reading books on an iPad makes no difference to education. It may be advertised to consumers as a great e-reader, and as a way of carrying around a truckload of books to read on a vacation it’s great, but if schools are going to invest vast amounts of money on iPads only to fill them up with ebook versions of novels or PDF copies of chapters from their Maths text books so our children can prop them up on a table while they complete Exercise 7A of the Quadratic Equations Chapter in their exercise books, we’ve missed the point.

If you have invested a lot of time, effort and money in Web 2.0 tools or educational management systems.
While there is much press about the demise of Flash support for mobile devices ( Android included ) and the rise of HTML5 sites, the vast majority of educational sites on the Internet are Flash or Java based. While many are free, educational versions of these sites usually cost a fair investment to use with large numbers of children. iPads don’t support these tools well. Yes, there are workaround solution in the form of dedicated iPad browsers like Puffin and Photon that use server based connections to provide useable Flash experience on iPads, but they are serviceable at best and inadequate or unusable at worst. While I have no experience of it, Moodle is widely used in schools as well and does not play well with iPads. Interactive whiteboard software like Promethean’s Activinspire doesn’t have an iPad version so you can’t create or edit flip charts on iPads with their software. So if your school has invested heavily in Web 2.0 tool licenses, Moodle like systems or have spent the last 5 years training you to make interactive whiteboard flip charts, consider the wisdom of moving to an iPad only set up.

Are you a Google Apps for Education school?
This is open for debate as I have visited schools that are 1:1 iPad schools who use Google Apps. From my experience, the user experience is not good enough. Maybe for word processing it’s functional but the Google spreadsheet experience is woefully inadequate on the iPad. If you have made a big investment in Google Apps, I’d stick with netbooks/laptops.

Website design/blog management
Web site building tools on the web like Weebly or Wix are useable and most of the publishing work of blogs can be done on an iPad. However,if you have an ICT course that is heavily involved in website building or you need to edit graphic elements or widget components of blogs, iPads don’t handle the task completely and you’ll need to stick with traditional computing.

Dedicated specialist software compatibility
Without listing them, there is obviously a huge range of software for specific purposes that aren’t supported and are unlikely to ever be supported on the iPad. While it may seem bleeding obvious, schools need to take this into account before dedicating their entire budget to a 1:1 iPad program.

Final thoughts
I started the year thinking the iPad was the one stop solution. I’ve come to believe now that a multi device option is preferable. 1:1 iPads would be great in an ideal world but the financial reality for school with substantial investments in other tech already doesn’t make it practical for a complete change. My school already has a lot of laptops and desktops in use. They are used for many valid purposes such as those listed above. It’s not reasonable to think we would replace all our resources with just iPads when there are good things already being done with them. So we are going down the horses for courses route. More iPads are likely to be purchased next year and used for all he great multimedia purposes outlined. Web tools, research, Flash and Java Ed sites, word processing, blogging, compatibility issues will continue to be addressed with our computers. I’m starting to think it’s the best of both worlds.

But what do you think? Have I under or oversold the iPad? Are there compelling reasons for iPads in education I’ve left out ? Are there other reasons for not committing to them? Share your thoughts. This is far from an exhaustive post. Join the conversation.

Maths Extension – engagement with nrich and Edmodo

Earlier in the year I wrote a post titled “Maths Extension/Enrichment with Edmodo“, outlining my plans for an enrichment/extension program for high achievers in Maths at school. It took longer than anticipated to get started but from the start of Term 3 (July), I met with 5 Grade 6 students, 8 Grade 5 students and a couple of very bright Grade 4 boys on a weekly basis for an hour. ( Another teacher does the same with Grade 3 and 4 students ).While we can argue that research suggests mixed ability groupings are more beneficial ( for the rest of the week, these children work in that environment), I am in no doubt that the program has been a resounding success and a great sense of engagement and enjoyment has been felt by all involved, including the Maths teacher!

Whether it is enrichment, extension or a mix of both, which was a point of contention with some readers back in the original post, I am not sure. Regardless, some great mathematical thinking is taking place every week between an enthusiastic, engaged group of students.

The weekly lesson itself takes no time to plan. I simply upload a problem to the MEP (Math Extension Program) Edmodo group at the start of the week so the students can check in for some preparation time before we meet. Don’t get me wrong, I know exactly what I want out of the lesson when I select the problem and I send a post lesson report to the classroom teachers outlining what we did. The beauty of what we do, though, is that we don’t know what will result from the lesson until it is over. There is no chalk and talk, no pre-task explanation of what to do, no expectations that we have to solve it at the end of the hour. What you will see is a group of mathematicians sitting around together, sharing strategies, discoveries, questions verbally, through demonstrations on the whiteboard or via iPads or by posting on Edmodo.

What has improved throughout the term has been their problem solving skills, collaborative discussions, use of technology aids to organise and simplify the process ( Numbers on the iPad  has been a real winner, using formulas to test and monitor conjectures, as has Explain Everything to record ideas and share via the whiteboard) and most importantly, their ability to articulate their thinking and learning, both their successes and failures ( something they haven’t experienced much beforehand).

A great example of the whole process is our last learning experience, which lasted over two weeks. Most of our problems have come from the well established Maths Enrichment website, nrich. ( another worthwhile site is New Zealand Maths ). The beauty of nrich is the incentive to have your solutions published on their website, giving bragging rights to those who succeed, either partially or fully ( more on that later) Our last problem before the holiday was Summing Consecutive Numbers. The problem is presented via an introductory video that explained the nature of the  task. Each student had their own iPad ( its only a small group – we could have used the laptops) so watched it independently. After a two minute debrief to make sure everyone understood the task, we went straight into solving the problem. Beforehand, though, we made a pact that we would publish our solution on nrich, which always had to be posted by the 21st of each month, which just happened to be the last day of Term 3 ( we had previously missed deadlines or solved old problems, so this was our first chance.)

What was great about this particular problem was that the task itself was simple to start with – just adding numbers – but discovering and proving patterns and formulas was a real challenge that need real arguing and collaboration. During the first hour, the students were so focused on discovering patterns. Every idea they had, no matter how small, was posted on Edmodo. This proved to be an important step as the following week we were able to refer back to all of our discoveries. LEt me interject here and state that I was an active part of this as well. Before the lesson started, I was none the wiser about the solutions so I became an authentic learner with my group, making conjectures and testing theories side by side with them. (I talked about the importance of being a learning role model in a previous post). Some children used Numbers spreadsheets to arrrange the numbers into common sets as we investigated, others jsut used pen and paper while others used Explain Everything to brainstorm every idea they had. At the end of the sessions, we had over 60 posts on Edmodo and had made some amazing progress and they continued on over the weekend and into the following week determined to meet our deadline.

The following week, we met with all of our discoveries articulated on Edmodo and we were ready to write our Proof of the Summing of Consecutive Numbers. The final result was exceptional and is published below for your viewing pleasure.
Consecutive Numbers Proof
I showed their classroom teachers and my fellow MEP teacher and they were blown away by the depth of articulation and understanding in the submission. I merely guided them through the process of writing the proof but it is all their work (some sentence structures needed some modelling). To a person, they all requested a copy to put in their blogs and digital portfolios and now wait excitedly for the news it is posted on nrich’s website next month. Regardless, I am going to showcase their effort at the School Assembly, much to their satisfaction of being recognised for being mathematicians.

Being such a successful and rewarding experience, I then started thinking – should this just be the domain of the MEP group? Why can’t the other students in their grade follow the same process? It’s not as if they don’t do problem solving based tasks. This task in particular could have been entered into by ALL the students at different levels and the MEP students could have worked with the others to extend their thinking. The more I work with my group, the more I realise this model of collaborative problem solving should be done more at school. Sure, some of the less able students would not have arrived at the sophistication of thinking these high achievers attained but they could have contriubted to the adding and would have discovered some of the lower level patterns.

I think we have to stop thinking that not all students can enter into these tasks. Nrich is full of problems for all ability levels. Its my new goal to attack at school. I still think these MEP students deserve their time together to work with like minds. But I also think everyone deserves the experience they are getting. It’s what a differentiated curriculum is all about.